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3D printing vs Mingong

Discussion dans 'Informations Chine' créé par C-E, 9 Jan 2013.

  1. C-E

    C-E Dieu
    Membre du personnel Modérateur

    19 Nov 2009
    +105 / -2
    Certains d'entre vous sont probablement déjà familiers de cette nouvelle technologie qu'est l'impression 3D.
    The Economist l'avait qualifiée de "Troisième révolution industrielle" dans un numéro spécial début 2012. J'avais lu ce dossier avec grand intérêt.
    Le Monde avait fini par faire un article sur cette technologie plusieurs mois après. (Les médias français, toujours un train ou deux de retard...)
    Et aujourd'hui, je découvre un article de Caijing sur le sujet.

    Beaucoup de bruit pour rien ? Véritable révolution pour l'industrie ? Alternative aux délocalisations ?

    [h=2]3D Printing Challenges China’s Manufacturing Industry[/h]01-08 15:17 Caijing


    The pressure on the 3D printing industry in China comes primarily from a lack of high-end generic technologies. The root cause is domestic enterprises’ weak R&D capabilities.
    By staff reporters Wang Yu and He Tao

    The industrialization of 3D printing, a technology introduced to China by Yan Yongnian, a former professor at Tsinghua University, now seems to be budding in Jiangsu and Zhejiang Provinces.
    The core of 3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, is digitized and intelligent processing. In 3D printing, an object is created by laying down successive layers of material, similar to building a wall with bricks. In contrast, traditional subtractive machining techniques mostly rely on the removal of material by methods such as cutting and drilling.

    In New York, over 14,000 kilometers away from the Chinese mainland, Shapeways, known for 3D cloud printing, has built a 25,000-square meter “future factory” in Queens, New York, which is the world’s biggest 3D printing factory. Also across the river in Manhattan, a large number of 3D printing companies founded by young entrepreneurs have gathered, which have maintained rapid growth even after the 2008 financial crisis.
    What is most unusual about Shapeways is its online-offline business model for “cloud printing.” Similar to Facebook, the company builds its own user community, which integrates selling and customization with design, allowing users to buy or upload their own designs to customize products.

    Consumers have never been so close to products since the emergence of factories. 3D printing has allowed consumers to choose between mass production and customized manufacturing. For instance, if you to produce a doll that looks like you, it might only cost 100 yuan using a 3D printer; in comparison, it may cost 10,000 yuan if you hire a factory to do it using traditional machining techniques.
    The wave of digital manufacturing represented by 3D printing has been dubbed by The Economist as the key factor which could one day trigger a third industrial revolution, therefore transforming the mode of production in manufacturing and changing the industrial chain’s operation pattern.

    Digital manufacturing technology will slash the number of workers directly involved in production and trim the cost of small-scale production. As a result, developed countries are encouraging domestic manufacturers to move part of their production back home.
    Although 3D printing has not overthrown the traditional manufacturing industry, it is gradually eating into the industry’s market share despite economies of scale enjoyed by traditional manufacturing.
    The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) has picked up on this trend. On Dec. 14, 2012, Su Bo, vice minister of MIIT, said at the 2012 International Additive Manufacturing Forum that China will speed up the development and industrialization of 3D printing technology.

    Unlike their U.S. counterparts, 3D printing enterprises in Jiangsu and Zhejiang usually do not have research and development (R&D) capabilities. In China, only the three universities of Tsinghua University, Xi'an Jiaotong University, and Huazhong University of Science and Technology, and one enterprise, Beijing Long Yuan – Automated Fabrication System (AFS), have R&D capability. However, companies connected to universities usually fail to react quickly enough to market signals.
    The pressure on the 3D printing industry in China comes primarily from a lack of high-end generic technologies, which presents a bottleneck to industrial upgrading throughout the field of advanced manufacturing technology. The root cause is domestic enterprises’ weak R&D capabilities.

    Unless it rides the wave of digital manufacturing represented by 3D printing, China’s manufacturing industry will lose its comparative advantage of low-cost labor and may find it even harder to enter into high value-added segments in industrial chains.
    China’s innovation system must be transformed by allowing enterprises and the market, rather than the government, to promote innovation in technology, said Wu Xiaoling, deputy director of the NPC Financial and Economic Committee.

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